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Передача информации посредством косвенной речи на иностранном языке один из основных показателей вашей исключительной эрудиции и образованности. Существует действительно огромное количество вариантов, как донести высказывание говорящего, не прибегая к прямой речи и банальному say. Вы сможете не только разнообразить свою речь, но и придать ей тонкий эмоциональный окрас: добавить нотки гнева, радости, уверенности или же разочарования.

Для передачи косвенной речи существует множество вариантов. В данной статье мы уделим особое внимание глаголам. Обратите внимание: мало знать слово (здесь: глагол) и его перевод, следует также обратить внимание на конструкцию, которая с ним употребляется. Собранная информация была систематизирована и подана в виде таблицы для лучшего запоминания. Итак, давайте ознакомимся.

В данной таблице мы выделяем пять основных моделей / схем передачи косвенной речи (Patterns) посредством глаголов. В первой колонке стоит непосредственно сам глагол, во второй – перевод его на русский язык, далее – пример прямой речи, и в последней колонке – вариант передачи реплики говорящего посредством упомянутого глагола. Следует также обратить внимание, что в некоторых схемах присутствуют «квадратные скобки» — […]. Это значит, что элемент не является обязательным. Таблица составлена таким образом, что вы можете самостоятельно проверять, насколько хорошо усвоен вами материал, например, повторять перевод глаголов, закрыв первую колонку, попытаться передать прямую речь посредством косвенной, закрыв последнюю колонку и т. д. Теперь приступим непосредственно к нашей таблице:

Reporting Verbs

Introductory Verb Translation Direct Speech Reported Speech
Pattern 1 — Verb + that-clause
Verb + [that]
agree соглашаться “Ok, I was wrong.” He agreed that he had been wrong.
claim заявлять “I saw the UFO.” He claimed that he had seen the UFO.
complain жаловаться “You never share any secrets with me!” She complained that I never share any secrets with her.
admit признавать “I was really unfriendly to him.” She admitted that she had been unfriendly to him.
deny отрицать “I didn’t break your favourite cup!” He denied that he had broken the cup.
exclaim воскликнуть “I am so happy!” She exclaimed that she was very happy.
explain объяснить “You see, there’s no point in going there right now.” He explained that there was no point in going there at that very moment.
recommend советовать “You’d better stay at home.” She recommended that we stayed at home.
prove доказывать “See, the system works.” He proved that the system worked.
insist настаивать “You do need to be present at the meeting.” They insisted that I need to be present at the meeting.
regret сожалеть “If only I could go on a vacation this year.” She regrets that she can’t go on a vacation this year.
state утверждать “I have never seen the young man before.” The witness stated that she had never seen the young man before.
promise обещать “I will be back no later than eight o’clock.” Dad promised that he will be back no later than eight o’clock.
suggest предлагать “Shall we spend the evening together?” He suggested that they spent the evening together.
assert утверждать “Nuclear power is a safe and non-polluting kind of energy.” The scientists asserted that nuclear power is a safe and non-polluting kind of energy.
contend заявлять “The Earth may be much younger than previously thought.” Some astronomers contend that the Earth may be much younger than previously thought.
maintain подтверждать “The new economic reforms may lead to a new crisis in the country.” Financial analysts maintain that the new economic reforms may lead to a new crisis in the country.
declare объявлять “Brown’s case should be reviewed.” The court declared that Brown’s case should be reviewed.
imply подразумевать “I am angry no more”, she grinned. Her grin implied that she was still angry.
observe заметить “He was driving at the speed over 90 miles per hour.” The officer observed that he was driving over 90 miles per hour.
note отметить “As far as I can see, you have no previous criminal record.” The judge noted that the defendant had no previous criminal record.
comment комментировать “Your friend’s behavior is absolutely outrageous.” Dad commented that his daughter’s friend’s behavior was absolutely outrageous.
point out обращать внимание “It is very important to earn enough to be independent.” She pointed out that it is very important to earn enough to be independent.
Verb + object + [that]
inform smb. сообщать кому-то “You will be interviewed on Thursday.” The manager informed me that I will be interviewed on Thursday.
warn smb. предупреждать кого-то “This is a very dangerous liquid.” Dad warned the son that the liquid was very dangerous.
persuade smb. убеждать кого-то “Do buy that jacket! It’s gorgeous.” She persuaded her friend to buy the jacket.
tell smb. говорить кому-то “I spent the whole weekend working on my thesis.” He told us that he had spent the whole weekend working on his thesis.
advise smb. советовать кому-то “You should visit your grandparents more often.” The neighbour advised her that she should visit her grandparents more often.
remind smb. напоминать кому-то “Don’t forget to take away the suit from the dry-cleaner’s.” Mrs. Evans reminded him that he should take away the suit from the dry-cleaner’s.
Pattern 2 — Verb + Infinitive
Verb + [not] + to-inf
agree соглашаться “Ok, I will help you with the test. ” He agreed to help her with the test.
demand требовать “Do give the money I paid back to me!” He demanded to give the money he had paid back to him.
offer предлагать “Shall I make some coffee for you?” He offered to make some coffee for us.
decide решать “I will go to Germany next year.” She decided to go to Germany next year.
promise обещать “I won’t be late.” He promised not to be late.
refuse отказываться “I won’t accompany you to the party.” He refused to accompany her to the party.
threaten угрожать “Unless you leave, I’ll call the police.” She threatened to call the police unless he left.
claim заявлять “I am a vegetarian.” She claimed to be a vegetarian.
Verb + sb + [not] + to-inf
advise советовать “You should sleep more.” The doctor advised him to sleep more.
allow позволять “You may go out.” The teacher allowed the pupil to go out.
ask просить “Please let me know when the dinner’s ready.” He asked her to let him know when the dinner would be ready.
beg умолять “Please do stay with me.” He begged her to stay with him.
command приказать “Turn to the left and go straight ahead.” He commanded him to turn to the left and go straight ahead.
encourage приободрять; поддерживать “Come on! Call him!” The friend encouraged her to call him.
forbid запрещать “Don’t touch the dog!” Mother forbade her little son to touch the dog.
recommend советовать “You should change the password immediately.” He recommended her to change the password immediately.
instruct инструктировать; распоряжаться “Mix the eggs with some sugar.” She instructed him to mix the eggs with some sugar.
invite приглашать “Come to see us on Saturday.” They invited us to come on Saturday.
order распоряжаться “Come on in and sit down.” He ordered the boy to come in and sit down.
permit позволять “You may smoke here if you like.” She permitted him to smoke there.
persuade убеждать “Let’s go out somewhere for a drink.” He persuaded Charles to go out somewhere for a drink.
remind напоминать “Don’t forget to put the oven mittens on.” Mom reminded me to put the oven mittens on.
urge побуждать; подгонять “Please do get in touch as soon as you can.” Susan urged them to get in touch.
tell говорить “Close the window, it’s too cold in here.” She told him to close the window as it was too cold in there.
warn предупреждать “Don’t touch the boiling kettle.” She warned the kid not to touch the boiling kettle.
want хотеть “Don’t tell Mary about that.” She didn’t want Mary to know that.
Pattern 3 — Verb + Gerund
Verb + [not] + gerund
deny отрицать “I didn’t steal the necklace.” He denied having stolen the necklace.
admit признавать “It was me who broke the machine.” He admitted having broken the machine.
recommend советовать “You should drink more water.” The doctor recommended drinking more water.
suggest предлагать “Let’s go to Greece in summer.” Mike suggested going to Greece in summer.
regret сожалеть “I am sorry I waste so much time on computer games.” He regrets wasting so much time on computer games.
advise советовать “Drink a glass of water every time before meals.” The nutritionist advises drinking a glass of water every time before meals.
Verb + preposition + [not] + gerund
apologise for извиняться за “I am sorry I can’t spend enough time with our family.” He apologized for not spending enough time with the family.
admit to признаваться в “It was me who broke the window.” The boy admitted to having broken the window.
boast about хвастаться чем-то “I am the senior manager of the company.” She boasted about being the senior manager of the company.
object to возражать “I won’t rewrite the article.” He objected to rewriting the article.
insist on настаивать на “It’s very advisable for you to see the new movie.” He insisted on seeing the new movie.
Verb + object + preposition + [not] + gerund
accuse smb. of обвинять кого-то в чем-то “It was he who killed John.” The witness accused him of having killed John.
complain to smb. about жаловаться кому-то на что-то “I am so sick and tired of this boring project.” Leo complained to his brother about being sick and tired with that boring project.
criticise smb. for критиковать кого-то за что-то “You are always so inattentive.” She criticized her daughter for being always inattentive.
blame smb. for винить кого-то в чем-то “You are absolutely heartless.” She blamed him for being absolutely heartless.
congratulate smb. on поздравлять кого-то с чем-то “Our best wishes for the baby boy!” They congratulated her on having a son.
praise smb. for хвалить кого-то за что-то “You are so courageous!” The mayor praised the rescue team for being very courageous.
suspect smb. of подозревать кого-то в чем-то “Have you told her my secret?” Jane suspected Ann of having told her secret.
Pattern 4 — Verb + object
describe описывать “The nature is really gorgeous there.” She described the beauty of the nature there.
emphasize подчеркивать; делать ударение “It is an extremely important issue.” The colonel emphasized the importance of the issue.
highlight выделять; освещать “Here’s the plan for the conference.” The chief highlighted the plan for the conference.
stress подчеркивать “This is a very awkward situation.” He stressed the awkwardness of the situation.
prove доказывать “See, I told you it was all his guilt.” She proved his guilt.
mention упоминать “By the way, she’s Lisa.” He mentioned her name, Lisa.
put forward предлагать; продвигать “We’ve got a number of suggestions.” They put forward a number of suggestions.
propose предлагать “Let’s do it that way…” He proposed his solution.
question подвергать сомнению “I am not sure whether we can trust him.” Jack questioned the man’s reliability.
cast doubt on ставить под сомнение “I am not quite sure he is a good professional.” We cast doubt on his professionalism.
Pattern 5 — Reported Questions
wonder what / why / how / where + clause

(when the subject of the introductory verb is not the same as the subject in the indirect question)

удивиться; желать знать He asked himself, “How old is she?”

She asked herself, “Where have I left my purse?”

He asked himself, “Why did she leave me?”

He asked himself, “What is the point of calling her?”

He wondered how old she was.

She wondered where she had left her purse.
 
 
He wondered why she had left him.

He wondered what the point of calling her was.

wonder whether + to-inf or clause

wonder where / what / how + to-inf

(when the subject of the infinitive is the same as the subject of the verb)

интересоваться; удивляться; желать знать She asked herself, “Shall I forgive him?”
 
 
 
He asked himself, “Where shall I stay for a night?”

She asked herself, “What shall I do now?”

He asked himself, “How shall I ask her to give me another chance?”

She wondered whether to respond him. / She wondered whether she should respond him.

He wondered where to stay for a night.
 
 
She wondered what to do then.

He wondered how to ask her for another chance.

С первого раза запомнить все возможные варианты передачи косвенной речи нелегко. Поставьте себе цель: каждый день по пять глаголов. Запомните само слово, его перевод и пример употребления. Составьте парочку собственных предложений с данным глаголом, полистайте художественную литературу и подумайте, как можно передать прямую речь героя с помощью выше перечисленных в таблице слов. Приложите некоторые усилия и будьте уверены – всё получится! Успехов!

Чтобы проверить, насколько хорошо вы усвоили материал, пройдите следующий тест:

Тест
Reporting what others say

Выберите правильный вариант

Задание 1.

“Ok, I will sign the document.”

Задание 2.

“Do invest your money in this prosperous company.”

Задание 3.

“Let’s spend the coming weekend together.”

Задание 4.

“It was me who stole the car.”

Задание 5.

“May your marriage be the happiest!”

Задание 6.

“I am not sure these shoes were really made in Italy.”

Задание 7.

She asked herself, “What shall I tell him?”

Задание 8.

“Go ahead and call her!”

Задание 9.

“I won’t do the washing up for you!”

Задание 10.

“He seems to be the one who is guilty in the accident.”

Задание 11.

“I shouldn’t have been so rude with him.”

Задание 12.

“Dial the number, press the green button and start a call.”

Задание 13.

“I am so unbelievably happy!”

Задание 14.

She asked herself, “How can he be so calm in this situation?”

Задание 15.

“He is Scottish, by the way.”

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